For in vitro diagnostic use. RIDA®GENE Parainfluenza is a multiplex real-time RT-PCR for the direct, qualitative detection and differentiation of human parainfluenza viruses (parainfluenza virus 1, parainfluenza virus 3 and parainfluenza virus 2/4) from human nasal and throat swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs.
RIDA®GENE Parainfluenza real-time RT-PCR is intended for use as an aid in the diagnosis of parainfluenza infection.
Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) are enveloped, single-stranded RNA (ss-RNA) viruses which can cause both upper respiratory infections and lower respiratory infections. Parainfluenza viruses belong to the family of Paramyxiviridae and were identified in the late 1950’s in children with inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. In contrast to influenza viruses, which belong to the family of Myxoviridae, parainfluenza viruses do grow poorly in embryonated eggs and they share little antigenetic sites with influenza viruses.
Parainfluenza viruses differ genetically and antigenetically and can be divided in four serogroups. Parainfluenza virus 1 and 3 which belong to the respirovirus genre, and parainfluenza virus 2 and 4 belonging to the rubilavirus genre. Mainly parainfluenza virus 1,2 and 3, but also parainfluenza virus 4 account for the major community-acquired respiratory pathogens worldwide. Although parainfluenza virus 1 and 3 most often occur in infants, small children, immunosuppressed and chronically ill people, also parainfluenza virus 2 and 4 may lead to respiratory infections. Even though all four parainfluenza virus serogroups do not differ a lot in structure or biology, there is a clear relationship between parainfluneza virus serogroup and presentation of respiratory disease, as well as the seasonal appearance of each of the four parainfluenza viruses. Epidemics of parainfluenza 1 and 2 mostly occur biannually in fall whereas parainfluenza 3 epidemics in North America and Europe occur yearly in spring and summer. Clinical symptoms are, dependent on the different serogroup, croup, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. Croup (also called acute laryngotracheitis) is mostly diagnosed in small children at the age of one and two and is of parainfluenza origin in 56 – 74 % of the cases. Here, an infection of parainfluenza virus 1 is most common. Bronchiolitis is present in children in their first year of age and is in 90 % of the cases leads due to viral infection. Bronchiolitis can occur through infection with all four parainfluenza virus serogroups but parainfluenza virus 1 and 3 are most common. Parainfluenza virus dependent pneumonia is most common in children between the age of two and three. Also pneumonia can be caused by all four parainfluenza serogroups. Patients without any of the above mentioned symptoms most often are diagnosed with tracheobronchitis. 20 – 30 % of children with lower respiratory tract infections have tracheobronchitis and 25 % are due to parainfluenza virus 3, 1 and 2.
In general, all parainfluenza virus serogroups can cause one or more respiratory tract infections and in 5 – 20 % of all lower respiratory tract infections more than one parainfluenza virus serogroup is detected. Infections by pathogens of the paramoxyviridae family do have the biggest economic consequences. In the US, hospitalization due to parainfluenza virus 1 and 2 leads to estimated costs of around 186 mio $ and every croup epidemic caused by parainfluenza virus 1 costs 30 mio. $.
|Test format||real-time RT-PCR with 100 reactions|
|Shelf life||24 months after production|
|Sensitivity||Analytical Sensitivity : ≥ 50 RNA copies per reaction|